Start with this link. It will give you the low down on surfing areas and times during the summer.
This link details parking. Parking at First Street metered spaces and the Pendleton lot is free before 10am.
If it gets over waist high they usually fly the red flags from the lifeguard stands which mean you can surf anywhere, not just surfing areas. The northend of VB doesn't have lifeguards, but police do patrol there and occasionally give tickets if you're surfing during non-surfing hours. This occurs on the weekends. If red flags are up on the southend you can safely surf the northend though.
Designated surfing areas:
Anywhere north of 42nd street (Monday-Thursday only)
Between 4th and 5th Street (I think there is still one there)
1st Street Jetty
Pendleton (between the fences)
Little Island Park (north side of Sandbridge Pier)